Transatlantic Flight: A Picture History, 1873–1939 (Dover Transportation)

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  1. History of Flight Around the World | AIAA
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The wingspan was increased to 15 m.


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In adding two additional fuel tanks mounted aft of the firewall , the three fuel tanks held a total of 4, litres of gasoline ; the PL. Apart from small floats attached directly to the undersides of the lower wing, the main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage could be jettisoned on takeoff in order to reduce the aircraft's weight; the underside of the fuselage was made watertight for a water landing.

History of Flight Around the World | AIAA

The aircraft christened L'Oiseau Blanc was painted white and had the French tricolor markings, with Nungesser's personal World War I flying ace logo: a skull and crossbones , candles and a coffin, on a black heart. The biplane carried no radio and relied only on celestial navigation, a specialty of Coli from his previous flights around the Mediterranean.

In , a second PL. Flown in , the PL. On 20 December , the second PL. In April , the first PL. Most of the flights were conducted around Chartres. Although full fuel loads were never carried, during one flight, he reached a speed of kilometres per hour and flight elevation of 4, m. Once the tests were complete, L'Oiseau Blanc was prepared for its record flight.

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L'Oiseau Blanc took off at a. The biplane weighed 5, kg on takeoff heavy for a single-engined aircraft. The intended flight path was a great circle route, which would have taken them across the English Channel , over the southwestern part of England and Ireland , across the Atlantic to Newfoundland south over Nova Scotia , to Boston , to a water landing in New York.

L'Oiseau Blanc had been carrying a sizable load of fuel, 4, litres, which would have given them 42 hours of flight time. Crowds of people gathered in New York to witness the historic arrival, with tens of thousands of people crowding Battery Park in Manhattan to have a good view of the Statue of Liberty , where the aircraft was scheduled to touch down.

After their estimated time of arrival had passed, with no word as to the aircraft's fate, it was realized that the aircraft had been lost. Rumors circulated that L'Oiseau Blanc had been sighted along its route, in Newfoundland, or over Long Island , despite the launch of an international search, after two weeks, further search efforts were abandoned.

The Needles The Needles is a row of three distinctive stacks of chalk that rise about 30m out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight , United Kingdom , close to Alum Bay , part of Totland , the westernmost civil parish of the Isle of Wight. The Needles Lighthouse stands at the western end of the formation.

Built in , it has been automated since ; the waters and adjoining seabed form part of the Needles Marine Conservation Zone and the Needles along with the shore and heath above are part of the Headon Warren and West High Down Site of Special Scientific Interest. The formation takes its name from a fourth needle-shaped pillar called Lot's Wife , that collapsed in a storm in ; the remaining rocks are not at all needle-like. Scenic boat trips operate from Alum Bay; the rocks and lighthouse have become icons of the Isle of Wight photographed by visitors, are featured on many of the souvenirs sold throughout the island.

The main tourist attractions of the headland itself are the two gun batteries, the experimental rocket testing station, the four Coastguard cottages owned by the National Trust.


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A Chairlift operates between the beach; the Needles were a site of a long-standing artillery battery, from the s to , decommissioned. During the peak of activity in the early s some people worked at the complex, while the rockets were built in nearby East Cowes ; these rockets were used to launch the Prospero X-3 satellite. The site is now owned by the National Trust, is open to the public. Concrete installations remain, but the buildings that were less durable have either been demolished or were torn down by the elements. Underground rocket testing rooms are being restored for exhibition; the first phase of restoration was completed in The batteries are accessible by car, foot and bus.

Though there is a paved road up to The Old and The New batteries, access is on foot, from a car park; the battery site becomes dangerous in high winds and is closed to the public in winds above force 8. In the spring and summer, the Southern Vectis bus company sends open-top buses along a route called The Needles Breezer; this route approaches the Battery along the cliff edge. Breezer buses are the only vehicles allowed on the road from Alum Bay, apart from those owned by National Trust staff or, by prior appointment, vehicles transporting disabled visitors.

This is because the single track road's position close to the cliff edge is considered dangerous for multiple car use. The Isle of Wight Coast Path has its westernmost point at the Coastguard Cottages; the Needles' pointed shape is a result of their unusual geology. The strata have been so folded during the Alpine Orogeny that the chalk is near vertical; this chalk outcrop runs through the centre of the Island from Culver Cliff in the east to the Needles in the west, continues under the sea to the Isle of Purbeck , forming Ballard Cliff , Lulworth Cove and Durdle Door.

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At Old Harry Rocks these strata lines moving from horizontal to near vertical can be seen from the sea. Just off the end of the Needles formation is the Shingles , a shifting shoal of pebbles just beneath the waves; the Shingles is three miles in length.

Many ships have been wrecked on the Shingles; some controversy has been raised about the actual shape of the Lot's Wife stone column, that collapsed in A drawing of The Needles by Dutch landscape artist Lambert Doomer , made in , depicts a rock formation with much stouter shape than that shown in Isaac Taylor's "one inch" map of Hampshire.

It is not clear from this drawings what transpired and whether Doomer was exercising artistic license. Doomer's painting shows three stacks when there should have been four, prior to the collapse of Lot's Wife. Once Paris's principal airport, it is now used only for general aviation including business jet operations, it hosts air shows, most notably the Paris Air Show.

It is famous as the landing site for Charles Lindbergh's historic solo transatlantic crossing in in the Spirit of St. Louis , had been the departure point two weeks earlier for the French biplane The White Bird , which took off in its own attempt at a transatlantic flight but mysteriously disappeared. In , Le Bourget was closed to international airline traffic and in to regional airline traffic, but remains serving both domestic and international business aviation.

Following the discontinuation of regular commercial traffic in , space available to house museum collections and displays has progressively increased; the airport hosts a statue commemorating Frenchwoman Raymonde de Laroche , the first woman to earn a pilot's licence. Chartres Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.

It is located about 90 km southwest of Paris. Chartres is famous world-wide for its cathedral. Constructed between and , this Gothic cathedral is in an exceptional state of preservation; the majority of the original stained glass windows survive intact, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century. Much of the old town, including the library associated with the School of Chartres , was destroyed by bombs in Chartres was in Gaul one of the principal towns of a Celtic tribe.

In the Gallo-Roman period, it was called Autricum, name derived from the river Autura, afterwards civitas Carnutum, "city of the Carnutes ", from which Chartres got its name; the city was burned by the Normans in , unsuccessfully besieged by them in In , during the Hundred Years' War , Chartres fell into the hands of the English, from whom it was recovered in In , it was raised to the rank of a duchy by Francis I.

On Sunday, 27 February , the cathedral of Chartres was the site of the coronation of Henry IV after he converted to the Catholic faith, the only king of France whose coronation ceremony was not performed in Reims. In the Franco-Prussian War , Chartres was seized by the Germans on 2 October , continued during the rest of the war to be an important centre of operations. In World War II , the city suffered heavy damage by bombing and during the battle of Chartres in August , but its cathedral was spared by an American Army officer who challenged the order to destroy it.

With his driver, Griffith proceeded to the cathedral and, after searching it all the way up its bell tower, confirmed to Headquarters that it was empty of Germans; the order to destroy the cathedral was withdrawn. Military, from the French government. Following deep reconnaissance missions in the region by the 3rd Cavalry Group and units of the Engineer Combat Group, after heavy fighting in and around the city, Chartres was liberated, on 18 August , by the U.

Third Army commanded by General George S. Chartres is built on a hill on the left bank of the Eure River , its renowned medieval cathedral is at the top of the hill, its two spires are visible from miles away across the flat surrounding lands. To the southeast stretches the fertile plain of Beauce, the " granary of France ", of which the town is the commercial centre.

http://co.organiccrap.com/84834.php It was built on the site of the former Chartres cathedral of Romanesque architecture, destroyed by fire in Begun in , the construction of Notre-Dame de Chartres was completed 66 years later; the stained glass windows of the cathedral were financed by guilds of merchants and craftsmen, by wealthy noblemen, whose names appear at the bottom. It is not known how the famous and unique blue, bleu de Chartres, of the glass was created, it has been impossible to replicate it. Le Centre international du vitrail, a workshop-museum and cultural center devoted to stained glass art, located 50 metres from the cathedral.

Conservatoire du machinisme et des pratiques agricoles, an agricultural museum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

French biplane. For other uses, see White Bird disambiguation. Retrieved: 16 January Retrieved: 18 January Retrieved: 17 January Cloud Times, 10 July Retrieved: 8 October Raphael Signature Site Strategy. Retrieved: 19 July Berg, A. New York: G.